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zieds1mazs.gif (257 bytes) Additional Vocabulary


In this page I propose some solutions to the terminology problems I have encountered while working with the Site ROOTS=SAKNES.



apriņķis One may translate the word as district. It was the second level administrative unit in the Russia Empire (in Russian - uyezd) and in Latvia consisted of several pagasti (see below). The plural is apriņķi.
church I used two different spellings of the word: Church and church. Church is a Christian religious organization, church is a building or premises where divine services of a Church take place.
estate On this site the word is used only for one of the meanings mentioned in Merriam-Webster Online dictionary - estate is: a social or political class; specifically : one of the great classes (as the nobility, the clergy, and the commons) formerly vested with distinct political powers. The estates are discussed in a special Chapter.
ethnicity The word is discussed in a special Page.
Latvians Throughout the Site the word is used for the people who are Latvians by ethnicity and never for the inhabitants or citizens of Latvia. The same is true for Russians, Germans etc.
name On this Site the word name is used for family name (surname, last name). It is specially mentioned if the first name (given name) is meant.
pagasts The word is frequently translated as county or civil parish. I usually leave it as it stands. This was the smallest administrative unit in the Russia Empire and is now in Latvia. In plural it sounds pagasti.
region of Latvia The term is used for the time period prior to the establishment of the Latvia state in 1918 and it refers to the region where now Latvia is situated.
scribe The word was used to translate the Latvian word skrīveris. Actually the scribe was a secretary of a pagasts office.
unterofficer The word is used in the information sources on the Army of the Russia Empire and it stems from a German word unteroffizier and means, according to my German-English dictionary, noncommissioned officer. In fact the unterofficers were corporals and sergeants.


© Bruno Martuzāns. 1995-2002