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mazpuke3.GIF (425 bytes)  Names and Words


The information of the Site ROOTS=SAKNES about the systems of family names used in the region of Latvia is gathered here. It is mainly confined to the Latvian names, because the naming system for other ethnicities should be better investigated in other places.

In this Page some information about the linguistic milieu of the region of Latvia should also be published, as long as it is relevant to the family history matters, of course.

For the information about the place names, especially their Latvian and German variants, please connect to the Chapter Territory.



Additional Vocabulary Some conventions I proposed for usage of the words specifically for this Site. Please, consult them if any questions arise and may be even before it happens.
Usage of languages A review of usage of languages in the region of Latvia by the official bodies of the Russia Empire and by the Churches.
Languages of the 19th century Some information about Latvian, German and Russian orthography in the 19th century is presented.
German language in Baltics A fragment from E.v. Mensenkampff's memoirs /Mensenkampff/ that shortly describes the peculiarities of the German language in the Baltic provinces of the Russia Empire.
Cross-religious marriage Why Ieva Dukurs and Ivans Gorkovs could not be married? Report of a pagasts court session (1865) concerning a quarrel in rude expressions. A bit of information on Latvian foul language could be found here. 7 Names: Briedis, Dukurs, Gārcis, Gorkovs, Kreišmanis, Meņšikovs, Penka



Naming The distribution of names to Latvian peasants after the abolition of serfdom is described shortly.
Lutheran first names The thesauruses of Lutheran first names used by Latvians in different time spans are available here. They are published in the form of calendars with Namedays.
Catholic and Orthodox first names Catholic and Orthodox first names that were recommended for usage of Latvians. They are published in the form of calendars with Namedays.
Names of ethnicities Names of ethnicities and ethnicities in names. Some information about Latvian family names coined from the names of ethnicites.
Change of names Change of names. The legislation and the practice concerning the change of a family name in the Russia Empire and Latvia.
Do you like your
Do you like your name? A review of some name changes in 1928 with discussion of both the old names and the possible reasons for their change.
Law of Name changes The Law on the name changes adopted on December 30, 1939. (in Latvian)
Endzelīns The name of Endzelīns. Difficulties to investigate the origin of the Latvian names are discussed taking this name as an example.
Vots The information about the ethnicity Vots and about a way the name Krieviņš could be acquired.


© Bruno Martuzāns. 1995-2002