zieds1mazs2.gif (177 bytes) ROOTS=SAKNES






Principles (please connect to this Page for leading ideas of this Site)
Words that have different meaning here



One of the first problems you might encounter, if connected to this Site, could be the viewing of the Latvian letters on your screens. As a rule, I write the names on this site in the spelling of the original texts or documents, but I frequently add the same name in the modern Latvian spelling, because I consider the modern form of names as the reference, or the standard form. Quite possibly your ancestor names were never written in Latvian, so you may feel some disagreement with the choice. But what else could be chosen as the standard?

This is the reason I think it is absolutely necessary you have the Baltic fonts for your browser. The modern browsers provide the appropriate fontcases without problems and quite frequently they automatically switch to the necessary coding. Sometimes it is needed to click additionally on the button Reload of the browser. In case of problems you may connect to the DekSoft homepage for guidelines how to configure your browser for the Latvian language.

May be it will be important to know that all the pages of the Site are prepared using the encoding Windows-1257, or what is the same ISO-8859-13.



FHC Family history center
KGB Committee of the State Security of the USSR. The abbreviation of the Russian term - Komitet gosudarstvennoj bezopasnosti. KGB was created in 1954
LDS Latter Days Saints (aka Mormons)
MGB Ministry of the State Security of the USSR. The abbreviation of the Russian term - Ministerstvo gosudarstvennoj bezopasnosti. MGB arose in 1946 when NKGB was renamed.
NKGB The people commissariat of the State Security of the USSR. The abbreviation of the Russian term - Narodnyj komissariat gosudarstvennoj bezopasnosti. NKGB was created in February, 1941
NKVD The people commissariat of the Interior of the USSR. The abbreviation of Russian term - Narodnyj komissariat vnutrennyh del. NKVD was split in NKVD and NKGB in February, 1941
TD Telephone directory




  • The names of people related to the region of Latvia are marked in all texts by boldface
  • As a rule, the spelling of Latvian names coincide with that of the original text. The female forms of the names in Latvian are sometimes replaced with their male forms just for unification and for making the work of search engines more perspective.
  • The non-Latvian names, except Russian ones, are written in the form of the original text, and as a rule the spelling in modern Latvian is also added. This spelling should serve as the reference form of any name related to Latvia. 
  • The Russian names and words are typed using Latvian characters, because it seems that it would be rather difficult to guarantee displaying of Cyrillic letters together with Latvian and German fonts, and, by the way, the available Russian fontcases do not contain the letters of the old orthography, that would be useful for this Site. For the same reasons only translations of not typed original texts in Russian are available here.
  • Texts in Latvian, if they are incorporated in an English text, are colored brown - Teksts latviski, and the texts in German are colored green - Deutscher text. 
  • The place names in the original texts are usually typed in their modern Latvian forms, and the German forms are mentioned in brackets [ ]. In cases where a different Russian form also exists, it could be mentioned after the German form, for example, Daugavpils [Dünaburg, Dvinsk].
  • Some words have here slightly different meanings as usual. See for these meanings a special Page.


Authorship The author of the Website ROOTS=SAKNES is Bruno Martuzāns, who is referred to in any text of the Site written in the first person - I, me etc.,  if it is not specifically mentioned otherwise, of course.
The maintainer of the site is the Computer network Sigmanet. Though a lot of work for this site was done in Sigmanet, only the author is responsible for the content of the published information, not the Sigmanet. 
Copyright. The texts, if not mentioned otherwise, are written by Bruno Martuzāns.  Any part of his texts may be reproduced, with a restriction (see below), in nonprofit publications provided that credit is given to the writer and the maintainer; and that the author receives, without needing to ask, a free copy of the final material; and that no changes are made without the express permission of the author. The information herein is not intended to be used to draw general conclusions or to attempt to prove or disprove anything about any group of population or any family or any person and it is not permitted to be used or even referred to for this purpose.

The information about the authors and the copyright issues is attached, if available, to the texts of other authors. Of course, everybody still own the copyright to the material they posted to the author of the Site, who merely owns the compilation (if any) of that material, not the material itself. 

If the originals of any here published documents, letters, postcards etc. were bought, it was assumed that the copyrights were bought therewith. 


No attempt should be made to separate any individual, to make claims of good or evil persons or intent, to label anyone as important and negligible amongst the people mentioned on this Site. If anybody lived, he/she had indisputable rights to exist and therefore to be recorded here. 

Privacy The information on this site concerns real people, if not stated otherwise. As a rule, the people mentioned here do not live more. If anybody thinks that some part of information can do any harm to any living person, please inform the author.
Legal matters While every effort has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the information in this compilation, the author Bruno Martuzāns, the contributors and the maintainer of the Site - Computer network Sigmanet assume no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages resulting from the use of the information and are in no way liable for misuse of the information contained within. The documents are provided "as is" without any express or implied warranties. 
Politics The information is provided for purposes of genealogical and family history research only. No effort was made to achieve any political correctness of the texts. The information herein, the author and the maintainer are not associated with any of governmental bodies, political parties or organizations in any official or unofficial capacity whatever. The texts should reflect the opinions of their authors.
The information herein is not intended to be used to draw general conclusions or to attempt to prove or disprove anything about any group of population or any family or any person and it is not permitted to be used or even referred to for this purpose.
Arts A special attention was paid to make the Site as simple as possible (but not simpler). It presents no frames, no running animals, no bouncing balls, no waving flags, no decorative pictures and the visitor should be warned, if big files (more than 100kB) had to be loaded.
Time span The historical information on this site is limited with the reference time interval 1800-1950 approximately, mainly because most part of Latvia inhabitants got their names at the beginning of the 19th century, so no reliable genealogy research is possible for the previous centuries.


© Bruno Martuzāns. 1995-2002